A flight test program was conducted in conjunction with a ground-based piloted simulation study to enable a comparison of handling qualities ratings for a variety of maneuvers between flight and simulation of a modern high performance airplane. Specific objectives included an evaluation of pilot-induced oscillation (PIO) tendencies and a determination of maneuver types which result in either good or poor ground-to-flight pilot handling qualities ratings. A General Dynamics F-16XL aircraft was used for the flight evaluations, and the NASA Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator was employed for the ground based evaluations. Two NASA research pilots evaluated both the airplane and simulator characteristics using tasks developed in the simulator. Simulator and flight tests were all conducted within approximately a one month time frame. Maneuvers included numerous fine tracking evaluations at various angles of attack, load factors and speed ranges, gross acquisitions involving longitudinal and lateral maneuvering, roll angle captures, and an ILS task with a sidestep to landing. Overall results showed generally good correlation between ground and flight for PIO tendencies and general handling qualities comments. Differences in pilot technique used in simulator evaluations and effects of airplane accelerations and motions are illustrated.